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the Mediterranean, and it became necessary for her to broaden
the education of her people to include a knowledge of Greek, the
language spoken over more than half of the civilized world. The
Greeks, for their part, were not slow to offer their services to the
conquerors. Adventurers of all kinds, and among them teachers
of grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and all the arts and sciences,
flocked to Rome in great numbers. The favour with which they
were received, however, was not undiscriminating. Even those
Romans who were attracted by their learning despised the charac-
ter of the Greeks too much to adopt their ways wholesale. True
to their practical bent, they attached little importance to the
abstract sciences except in so far as they could be turned to some
concrete advantage, and they were not interested in any philosophy
except that of the Stoics, which, with its austere morality and
its faith in a world order, was akin to their own views of life.
Grammar and rhetoric, on the other hand, appealed to them
even more than to the Greeks, and were welcomed with
whole-hearted enthusiasm and made the basic studies of their
higher education.

The details of the introduction of Greek educational methods in
Rome are obscure, but it is possible to demarcate three stages in
the process, (i) The first dates from the fall of Tarentum in
272 B.C., when many Greek slaves were brought to Rome. Some
of these were well-educated men and found fitting employment
as tutors in their masters' households. The most notable of these
was Andronicus, who made a Latin translation of the Odyssey
(probably for the use of his pupils), which continued to be one of
the chief reading books in the Roman schools for three or four
hundred years. For his services he was given his freedom some
time before 240 B.C., and he enjoyed a great reputation as a teacher
and a poet till his death in 203 B.C. Another " half-Greek " men*
tioned along with Andronicus as a teacher of Greek letters in
Rome by Suetonius in his Lives of Eminent Grammarians was the
poet Ennius (b. 240 B.C.). Though both are called " grammatici,"
there is no evidence to show that there were " grammar " schools
in existence at this time. A reference by Plutarch to the establish-
ment of a school (ypap.juaTo-8LSa.ffKa\€tov) by Spurius Carvilius
about the middle of the Third Century has been taken to mark the
beginning of such schools, but in the absence of any facts to prove
that this school differed from the ordinary ludi (except that fixed